# PrefacePreface to Applied Discrete Structures for Computer Science, 2nd Ed. (1989)

We feel proud and fortunate that most authorities, including MAA and ACM, have settled on a discrete mathematics syllabus that is virtually identical to the contents of the first edition of Applied Discrete Structures for Computer Science. For that reason, very few topical changes needed to be made in this new edition, and the order of topics is almost unchanged. The main change is the addition of a large number of exercises at all levels. We have “fine-tuned” the contents by expanding the preliminary coverage of sets and combinatorics, and we have added a discussion of binary integer representation. We have also added an introduction including several examples, to provide motivation for those students who may find it reassuring to know that mathematics has “real” applications. Appendix B—Introduction to Algorithms, has also been added to make the text more self-contained.

*How This Book Will Help Students*
In writing this book, care was taken to use language and examples that gradually wean students from a simpleminded mechanical approach and move them toward mathematical maturity. We also recognize that many students who hesitate to ask for help from an instructor need a readable text, and we have tried to anticipate the questions that go unasked.
The wide range of examples in the text are meant to augment the “favorite examples” that most instructors have for teaching the topics in discrete mathematics.

To provide diagnostic help and encouragement, we have included solutions and/or hints to the odd-numbered exercises. These solutions include detailed answers whenever warranted and complete proofs, not just terse outlines of proofs. Our use of standard terminology and notation makes Applied Discrete Structures for Computer Science a valuable reference book for future courses. Although many advanced books have a short review of elementary topics, they cannot be complete.

*How This Book Will Help Instructors*
The text is divided into lecture-length sections, facilitating the organization of an instructor's presentation.
Topics are presented in such a way that students' understanding can be monitored through thought-provoking exercises. The exercises require an understanding of the topics and how they are interrelated, not just a familiarity with the key words.

*How This Book Will Help the Chairperson/Coordinator*
The text covers the standard topics that all instructors must be aware of; therefore it is safe to adopt Applied Discrete Structures for Computer Science before an instructor has been selected.
The breadth of topics covered allows for flexibility that may be needed due to last-minute curriculum changes.

Since discrete mathematics is such a new course, faculty are often forced to teach the course without being completely familiar with it. An Instructor's Guide is an important feature for the new instructor. *An instructor's guide is not currently available for the open-source version of the project.*

*What a Difference Five Years Makes!*
In the last five years, much has taken place in regards to discrete mathematics. A review of these events is in order to see how they have affected the Second Edition of Applied Discrete Structures for Computer Science.
(1) Scores of discrete mathematics texts have been published. Most texts in discrete mathematics can be classified as one-semester or two- semester texts. The two-semester texts, such as Applied Discrete Structures for Computer Science, differ in that the logical prerequisites for a more thorough study of discrete mathematics are developed.
(2) Discrete mathematics has become more than just a computer science support course. Mathematics majors are being required to take it, often before calculus. Rather than reducing the significance of calculus, this recognizes that the material a student sees in a discrete mathematics/structures course strengthens his or her understanding of the theoretical aspects of calculus. This is particularly important for today's students, since many high school courses in geometry stress mechanics as opposed to proofs. The typical college freshman is skill-oriented and does not have a high level of mathematical maturity. Discrete mathematics is also more typical of the higher-level courses that a mathematics major is likely to take.
(3) Authorities such as MAA, ACM, and A. Ralson have all refined their ideas of what a discrete mathematics course should be. Instead of the chaos that characterized the early '80s, we now have some agreement, namely that discrete mathematics should be a course that develops mathematical maturity.
(4) Computer science enrollments have leveled off and in some cases have declined. Some attribute this to the lay-offs that have taken place in the computer industry; but the amount of higher mathematics that is needed to advance in many areas of computer science has also discouraged many. A year of discrete mathematics is an important first step in overcoming a deficiency in mathematics.
(5) The Educational Testing Service introduced its Advanced Placement Exam in Computer Science. The suggested preparation for this exam includes many discrete mathematics topics, such as trees, graphs, and recursion. This continues the trend toward offering discrete mathematics earlier in the overall curriculum.

*Acknowledgments*
The authors wish to thank our colleagues and students for their comments and assistance in writing and revising this text. Among those who have left their mark on this edition are Susan Assmann, Shim Berkovitz, Tony Penta, Kevin Ryan, and Richard Winslow.

We would also like to thank Jean Hutchings, Kathy Sullivan, and Michele Walsh for work that they did in typing this edition, and our department secretaries, Mrs. Lyn Misserville and Mrs. Danielle White, whose cooperation in numerous ways has been greatly appreciated.

We are grateful for the response to the first edition from the faculty and students of over seventy-five colleges and universities. We know that our second edition will be a better learning and teaching tool as a result of their useful comments and suggestions. Our special thanks to the following reviewers: David Buchthal, University of Akron; Ronald L. Davis, Millersville University; John W Kennedy, Pace University; Betty Mayfield, Hood College; Nancy Olmsted, Worcester State College; and Pradip Shrimani, Southern Illinois University. Finally, it has been a pleasure to work with Nancy Osman, our acquisitions editor, David Morrow, our development editor, and the entire staff at SRA.

Alan DoerrKennneth Levasseur

Lowell MA