Gender, Law & Politics 46.320


Susan E. Gallagher, Associate Professor, Political Science

1. The Legal Construction of Gender in the United States


Marilynn Salmon, "The Legal Status of Women, 1776-1830," History Now, March 2006

Susan E Gallagher, "Gender," Encyclopedia of Privacy, edited by William G. Staples.

Bradwell v. Illinois (1872), upheld exclusion of women from legal practice.

Muller v. Oregon (1908), permitted sex discrimination in employment.

Assignments 1-2

Background: Eric Foner, "The Reconstruction Amendments: Official Documents as Social History," History Now (Gilder-Lehrman Institute).  Ian Milhiser, "The Troubled History Of The Constitution’s Most Important Amendment," Think Progress, July 9, 2015.  Brett Parker, "What Level of Legal Scrutiny Should Sexual Orientation-Based Classifications Receive?," Stanford Political Journal, January 19, 2015.

2. 1st Wave Feminism: Gaining Admission to the Public Sphere


Deborah M.S. Brown, "The Long Struggle for Women's Suffrage," U.S. Dept. of State, Learn North Carolina.

The Declaration of Sentiments of the Seneca Falls Convention (1848), Fordham University.

Susan E. Gallagher, Women's Suffrage and the Making of the White American Home, UMass Lowell.

Susan B. Anthony, "On Women's Right to Vote (1873)," The History Place.

Monee Fields White, "Women's Suffrage and Racism: Ida B. Wells vs. Frances Willard," The Root, March 25, 2011.

3. 2nd Wave Feminism: A Struggle for Personal Liberation


Excerpt from Betty Friedan, The Feminine Mystique (1963).

Equal Pay Act of 1963, Equal Opportunity Commission.

National Organization for Women (NOW), Statement of Purpose (1966).

Stonewall Rebellion: Jerry Lisker, "Homo Nest Raided, Queen Bees Are Stinging Mad," New York Daily News, July 6, 1969.

Gloria Steinem, "Women's Liberation Aims to Free Men Too," Washington Post, June 7, 1970.

Meritor Savings v. Vinson (1986), defined liability in cases of sexual harassment.

5. Gender, Race & Justice


Ida B. Wells, "Lynch Law," 1893.

Loving v. Virginia (1967), overturned state laws against interracial marriage.

Michelle Alexander, “The New Jim Crow: How Mass Incarceration Turns People of Color into Permanent Second-Class Citizens,” American Prospect, December 6, 2010.

Michelle Alexander, "Telling My Son about Ferguson," Op-Ed, New York Times, November 26, 2014.

Alicia Garza, "A HerStory of the #BlackLivesMatter Movement," Black Lives Matter.


GLP Assignment 5

6. Gender and the Expansion of Civil Rights in the 21st Century


Lawrence v. Texas (2003), overturned Bowers v. Hardwick (1986) by including same-gender sexual activity within a general right to privacy.

Goodridge v. Department of Public Health (2003), held that prohibiting same-gender marriage violates constitutional protection of equal treatment under law: "The Goodridge Decision and the Right to Marry," Massachusetts Law Review.

Ruth K. Khalsa, "Polygamy as a Red Herring in the Same-Sex Marriage Debate, " Duke Law Journal, 2005.

"Why 6 federal judges struck down state gay marriage bans, in their own words," Washington Post, February 27, 2014.

Obergefell v. Hodges (2015), overturned state laws against same-gender marriage: Adam Liptak, "Supreme Court Ruling Makes Same-Sex Marriage a Right," New York Times, June 26, 2015.

Danny Nett, "Transgender Rights Lead NPR's Top LGBTQ Stories of 2017," December 30, 2017.

7. Gender, Law & Politics: Current Controversies

Corrine McConnaughy, "4 Lessons for Today’s Women’s Marchers from the Suffrage Movement," Washington Post, January 26, 2017.

Jane Fonda, Bryce Covert, Katha Pollitt, Collier Meyerson, Raina Lipsitz, Joan Walsh, "6 Perspectives on the Future of #MeToo," The Nation, December 13, 2017.

 Alec Tyson and Shiva Maniam, "Behind Trump’s Victory: Divisions by Race, Gender, Education," Pew Research Center, May 26, 2017.

Lonnae O’Neal, "The 53 Percent Issue," The UnDefeated, December 20, 2016.

John Gramlich, "10 Things We Learned about Gender Issues in the U.S. in 2017," Pew Research Center, December 28, 2017.